Exploring Learning Environment Through Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory


  • Nurul Amirah Khairul Amali
  • Muhammad Usamah Mohd Ridzuan
  • Noor Hanim Rahmat
  • Hui Zanne Seng
  • Norliza Che Mustafa


Learning Environment, Foreign Language Learning, Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory, Motivation


One of the key elements to ensure learning effectiveness is by having a conducive learning environment. However, different parameters of the said environment have been exposed to changes due to the global pandemic period. Having experienced different styles of learning, learners’ preferences regarding learning environment ought to be re-investigated. This research aims thus to (re)determine learners’ preferred learning environment through Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory 1995. It is quantitative research using survey as the instrument in which there are 5 sections (demographic profile, microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem). The 4 factors of the ecological system are used to scaffold the types of learning environment by (Hassan et al., 2020). The 101 respondents are diploma and degree level university students who were taking French language courses in a public university in Malaysia. Findings revealed that, on microsystem level, usage of easy-to-understand language ought to be employed; on mesosystem level, a positive social environment should be established in class; on exosystem level, the presence of assessments and feedback for students’ self-improvement ought to be favoured; on macrosystem, a learning approach through understanding minimising thus memorisation method should be adopted. It is also proven that the four Bronfenbrenner’s environments have strong positive relationships between them. Taking into account all the environments that a learner interacts with is crucial to ensure a positive learning environment and experiences which in turn could manifest into positive motivation.