The Challenges of Educational Environment on Virtual Learning among Undergraduate Students during the Covid-19 Pandemic


  • Ikmal Malik
  • Grace Derioh


Education, Pandemic, Motivation, Virtual Learning, Self-Efficacy, Technology Literacy


Purpose: This paper examined the challenges students faced with virtual learning during the coronavirus pandemic. Virtual learning is currently the alternative solution to slow down the spreading of COVID-19. However, it can be challenging for the disabled, underprivileged, and marginalized students with limited resources. Design/methodology/approach: 165 university students from private universities took part in the study and Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the data in the study, which took a quantitative approach. Findings: Results showed that self-efficacy, motivation, and technology literacy had a positive impact on virtual learning. The findings indicated that educational institutions must pay attention to the factors that keep students motivated and maintain their optimal performance, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, through virtual learning. Research limitations/implications: There are number of limitations in the current study that should be as caveats. Since the study is conducted with private university students in Klang Valley area only, the sample size is very small, and the duration is very short.  Practical implications: It is recommended that private university students to better equipped with the technology to enhance not only their interaction with instructors, but the skills they acquired that will be the advantage of their learning opportunities to advance their competencies. Originality/value: During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, a student has become one of the utmost prominent primacies for nationwide education institutions. The sudden shift of a conventional learning environment, to a virtual learning mode, has caused numerous concerns among the education sector, fellow educators as well as parents.