Written Corrective Feedback in An ESL Malaysian Primary Classroom: Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices


  • Paul Chandra Bose Selvarajoo
  • Haysriq Thomeeran
  • Geethanjali A. Anbalagan
  • Norul Huda Mohd Ghazali
  • Mohd Amar Mohd Mokhtar


Written Corrective Feedback, English As A Second Language (ESL), Primary School, Beliefs, Practices


Written corrective feedback (WCF) has long been debated in language learning, with questions raised about its efficacy in the classroom. The use of WCF is important in the process of language learning since it benefits both educators and learners. This study aims to investigate the types of WCF implemented in an English primary classroom in Selangor, Malaysia, and to explore the beliefs and practices of 6 English teachers and 30 students towards WCF. Data was collected through a focus group discussion and document analysis. The study found that WCF served as a useful guideline for students to improve their writing skills and motivated them to excel, while also helping teachers to enhance their pedagogy. However, there were both matches and mismatches between teachers' beliefs and their actual WCF practices, particularly regarding the types of feedback provided. While teachers' beliefs were congruent with the focus and provision of feedback, there were striking incongruences regarding the types of feedback provided. This study contributes to the theory and practice of WCF in a primary ESL classroom context. It also offers insights for educators on how to effectively implement WCF in their teaching practices. Further research could look into the impact of different sources of WCF, such as peer and teacher–student conferencing, on the development of students’ writing skills, as this study only looked at teachers' provision of WCF.