Shocking Truths About Three Factors That Influenced Computational Thinking (I Wish I Learned Earlier!)


  • Wan Nurul Hidayah Wan Mohamad Akil
  • Mohd Effendi @ Ewan Mohd Matore


Computational Thinking, Systematic Literature Review, Conceptual Framework, Students, Factors


Problem-solving mastery is deemed a key skill by the year 2025. In the future, the use of automation technology and machines are expected to completely replace existing jobs such as Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR4.0) and 5G. This situation promotes computational thinking as a 21st-century thinking skill in education. However, research on the factors that influence students' computational thinking is still limited. Accordingly, this study aims to systematically analyze the factors influencing students' computational thinking through a systematic literature review and develop a conceptual framework based on the main factors outlined. A total of three databases such as Scopus, WoS, and ERIC were used in the screening of articles for a period of ten years (2022–2012). The PRISMA model used includes four levels comprising the identification, screening, eligibility, and data entry strategies. A total of 11 articles were identified from 111 articles, which met the specified criteria. The findings of the study showed 19 factors that influenced students' computational thinking. The conceptual framework was developed based on the most dominant approaches such as digital literacy, STEM awareness, and individual factors. This study has implications for teaching practices through the increased reinforcement of training techniques based on more effective computational thinking. In fact, the findings can provide expected data to design interventions that are more suitable for students at school. In addition, further research can also be done through the development of modules to train teachers and students to use computational thinking in the right manner so that thinking exercises can be carried out accordingly.