Educational Challenges in the 21st Century: A Literature Review


  • Maslawati Mohamad
  • Kirubayini Palani
  • Lisshaline Shanmuga Nathan
  • Yogesvary Sandhakumarin
  • Rakhimova Indira
  • Ermetova Jamila


Malaysia Education Blueprint, Challenges, 21st-century Teaching and Learning, Teachers, Students


As we are already in the 21st Century, there is a shift in the education system, especially in teaching English as a Second Language in Malaysia. This shift resulted in the challenges faced by both parties, teachers and students. This literature review paper highlights two main points: (1) information regarding Malaysia Education Blueprint to equip the teachers and students for 21st-century learning and (2) the challenges faced by both parties. There are some challenges faced by Malaysian teachers, namely, inadequate knowledge of 21st-century learning and teaching approaches, teachers’ dependency on traditional approaches, textbook reliance, time-consuming in preparing the teaching materials and time-consuming in carrying out the activities. Moreover, currently, students experience challenges such as low English proficiency level, limited vocabulary repertoire, insufficient resources and high power distance. Thus, it is hoped that the teachers could plan some measures to prepare themselves in addressing those challenges. A comprehensive understanding of 21st-century learning skills will enable teachers to be more prepared in providing the students with the necessary input and selecting more effective teaching approaches. The authorities should provide sufficient infrastructure and experts to facilitate the teachers and students to address the challenges.