The Development of a Parental Relationship and Iterative Involvement Model (PRII-M) for Early Childhood Education in Malaysia


  • Gurdip Kaur Saminder Singh
  • Ranjit Kaur P. Gernail Singh
  • Harsherin Kaur Gurdip Singh
  • Abdul Halim Masnan


Parental Relationship, Parental Involvement, Early Childhood Education (ECE)


Parental relationship is an important criterion for child growth. The substantial purpose of this study was to analyse the current parental relationship and involvement practices at Early Childhood Education (ECE) centres in Malaysia and consequently propose an ideal model for parental partnerships. Findings from the qualitative study steered three major themes for discussion- current trends on parent-child relationship, the intensity of parental relationship within ECE centres and ECE centres’ initiatives for parental involvement. Based on these findings, a model for parental involvement grounded by Epstein’s six types of parental involvement known as Parental Relationship and Iterative Involvement Model (PRII-M) was developed.