The Importance of Innovative Teaching and Learning Approaches in the Implementation of CEFR: A Literature Review


  • Segar Sadhasivam
  • Moses Veda P Michael
  • Maslawati Mohamad
  • Melor Md Yunus


Innovative Pedagogy, Perception towards CEFR, Formative Assessment, Differentiation Strategies


The presence of several Innovative Pedagogy principles in Common European of References (CEFR) particularly through the inclusion of Differentiation Strategies and Formative Assessment has encouraged a creative and innovative teaching and learning environment among Malaysian English teachers and pupils. There is a lack of priority towards an effective practice of Differentiation Strategies and Formative Assessment in a CEFR lesson due to the focus on merely achieving the learning standards. CEFR has received a mixed review from educators and test developers due to a lack of understanding of the framework. This situation has directly affected the pedagogy process, especially in the insertion of differentiation strategies and formative assessment. In relation to this, this paper aims to present the perspective of implementing innovative teaching and learning approaches in CEFR while highlighting the embodiment of the principles of innovative pedagogy through Differentiation Strategies and Formative Assessment recommended in the Schemes of Work. By understanding this, educators could make attempts in implementing these new approaches in their own classroom context, especially to the current generation of pupils in order to promote more active learners. It is hoped that these new approaches could yield better achievements among the pupils.