Moderating Effects of Goal Orientations on the Relationship between Smart Learning Approach and Teaching of Critical Thinking Skills among Pre-Service Teachers


  • Nie Ni
  • Samsilah Binti Roslan
  • Aini Marina Marof
  • Tajularipin bin Sulaiman


Goal Orientations, Smart Learning Approach, Teaching Critical Thinking Skills


Teaching critical thinking skill using the smart learning approach have been treated as the essential goal of higher education in many countries, however, as the important predictors of academic performance, the effects of goal orientations on teaching critical thinking skill using the smart learning approach are still not fully clear, hence, this study tried to explore the moderating effects of goal orientations on the relationship between constructivist smart learning approach and critical thinking skills among pre-service teachers. Findings showed that there were significant moderating effects of intrinsic goal orientations on the positive relationships between smart learning approaches of student negotiation, inquiry learning, and reflective thinking and critical thinking skills, by contrast, extrinsic orientations cannot play the role. These results contribute some valuable information and knowledge for relevant theories and teaching practices, which were also further discussed in this study.