University Students’ Perception of Digital Technology in Self-Directed English Learning: Types and Effectiveness


  • Puteri Nur Sabrina Najwa Binti Mohd Nasir
  • Sundari Subasini a/p Nesamany


Self-Directed English Learning, Technology, Social Media Platforms, Language Apps, Language Blogs, English Education


This research aimed to investigate the use of social media platforms, language apps, and languages by undergraduate students in Malaysia in various self-directed English learning contexts, and also to determine the effectiveness of these tools. Using quantitative research approach, this study employed a close-ended and structured 4-point Likert scale questionnaire to collect the data. The questionnaire was administered to 120 undergraduate students from a local private university in Selangor, through simple random sampling. It was found that undergraduate students in Malaysia effectively utilise three types of digital technologies, namely social media platforms, language apps, and language blogs, for self-directed English learning. The researchers recommend larger sample sizes for a more comprehensive representation of the population and to conduct separate studies for each language skill providing detailed insights into the types of digital technology utilized in each language skill.