Dear Second Language Learners (L2): The Complete Guide of Primary Trait Scoring Rubric for Self and Peer Assessment (SAPA)


  • Nurul Fariena Asli
  • Mohd Effendi Ewan Mohd Matore


Primary Trait Rubric, Holistic Rubric, Analytic Rubric, Performance Assessment, Classroom Assessment, Self-Assessment, Peer Assessment


In assessing performance-based language assessment, the use of a suitable scoring method is crucial to minimize measurement errors that will become threats in the rating process. The scoring method which is widely used in the literature is a rubric as the rubric is proven to be able to provide guidelines for the rater to cognitively construct their understanding of how to assess performance. The appropriate selection of a rubric to be used by a particular rater will ensure the validity and reliability of the scores given to an assessed performance. However, since there are different types of rubrics and each of the rubrics serves a different purpose, teachers must be able to distinguish the differences between these rubrics. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the different types of rubrics and highlight the potential of primary trait rubrics to be used by second language learners (L2) in one of the performance-based assessment activities particularly self and peer assessment (SAPA). The main idea of this paper is to improve the quality of formative assessment practice in measuring second language performance which is significant to ensure the validity and reliability of the assessed performance. Undeniably, this will provide insights for teachers to conduct the formative assessment in the classroom mainly when self-directed learning is becoming the main aim for students’ development.