Parental Engagement Using ‘4M’ Concept in the Education Development Process in Malaysia


  • Nor Azila Hamid
  • Mahaliza Mansor


Parental Engagement, Epstein’s Model, Management Process, Malaysia Education Development Plan 2013-2025


The parental engagement across waves in the Malaysian Education Development Plan 2013-2025 is more focused in the context of 'academic achievement'. Therefore, parental engagement needs to be expanded and given a new concept. This action is important to enable them to interact more effectively and engage continuously in line with the current needs. This concept paper aims to propose a concept to empower of parental engagement in the educational development process in Malaysia. Epstein's model as a basis of reference via the practice of the four management processes (4M) namely; planning, organizing, leading, and controlling to empower parents' engagement more effectively. The methods used are through the analysis of the Malaysian Education Development Plan 2013-2025; in addition the literature review that related to parental engagement, Epstein’s Model and the Management Model. The result, a conceptual framework was developed as a proposed for parental engagement to practice the concept of 4M. The implications of the study contribute to the parents to engage continuously and support in order for the Ministry of Education Malaysia to implement the national education development process more effectively.